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Die Rolle wirtschaftlicher Motive und Herausforderungen der Energiewende Japans

  • This thesis examines the role of economy in the transformation of Japanese energy supply. In 2021, following the Paris Agreement example, the Japanese Government formulates their “6th Energy plan” to realize the country's national energy policy aims to reduce CO2 emissions and secure energy supplies while increasing economic efficiency. This entails an emission reduction target of nearly 50 % compared to 2013 by 2030 and a complete greenhouse gas emission neutrality target by 2050. In order to achieve these Japan plans to reduce traditional combustibles fuels and introduce renewables as main sources, while nuclear energy will be used as support and safety load. The Japanese Government ensures of the necessity of the nuclear technology in spite of the critical effects the Fukushima accident had on the nation. Japans energy supply depends by majority on fuel imports. The rising prices of fossil fuels, which are due to the Russian aggression, are causing economic hardships in Japan, which the Government is attempting to contain. These hardships are one of the assumed reasons of the sudden changes in the energy policies. Two hypotheses are established. The first one is that the METI is the main contributor of policy making and main force of the energy transfor-mation, therefore economic reasons guide the energy plan. The second one is that the nuclear energy is preferred because of complex external factors, like stakeholder and historical pecu-liarities of the energy sector. Most importantly, climate protection is only of secondary im-portance in the energy transformation. Asserting that economical motives are the main drivers of energy transformation, the Japanese 6th energy strategy is therefore analyzed. The Rational Choice theorem is chosen to be the academic foundation of this thesis. The theory describes a decision-making process which compares alternative paths of action and identifies the most suitable choice. Main elements are the “decision-making rule” and an “environmental-factor”. In the analysis of this thesis a "cost reducing" decision rule is adopted. The analysis consists of two parts in which these elements are analyzed. The analysis is resulting in the recognition of METI as the most influential political organ. Ad-ditionally, the transformation of Japanese energy supply is heavily influenced by extern parties, especially the industry and businesses. The Keidanren and members of the “nuclear village” are found to be influencers and driving forces for nuclear energy. Furthermore, the analyze underlines the clear preference of METI for nuclear energy. Although different opinions in the midst of Japanese government (first and foremost the MOE) exist, there are no real competitor against METIs policy making. The thesis concludes that as long as METI and its beneficiaries are not willing to change the energy mix, nothing is changing. The academic research has demonstrated that even a more ambitious plan and a greater commitment to renewable ener-gies can achieve base load capability, but the government does not welcome such plans.

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Author:Saskia Schlüter
Document Type:Master's Thesis
Year of Completion:2023
Date of final exam:2023/12/22
Release Date:2024/03/18
Page Number:97
Institutes:Fachbereich 2 - Wirtschaftsinstitut
DDC class:300 Sozialwissenschaften / 330 Wirtschaft
Licence (German):License LogoNo Creative Commons